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Noise Reduction

Noise can be summarized as the visible effects of an electronic error (or interference) in the final image from a digital camera. It is related with the temperature, sensitivity of the sensor (CCD/CMOS) and shutter speed.

Source 1: ISO sensitivity of the sensor (CCD/CMOS): High worse low better. Auto shooting mode will automatically increase ISO value when the light is dark thus more noise occurs.
Solution: ISO 100 is recommended. Auto shooting mode will automatically increase ISO value when the light is dark. Please refer to http://www.dpreview.com/learn/Glossary/Digital_Imaging/Noise_01.htm.

Source 2: CCD Temperature Noise is exponentially related to temperature - it DOUBLES for every 6 or 8 degrees C temperature rise (depending on the CCD).
Solution: Store it in a shady cool place before shooting. Do NOT keep the camera on for a long time since it will increase the temperature. Turn it off and let it cool down before another shot. More in http://www.dpreview.com/news/0005/00050104ccdtemperature.asp.

Source 3: Exposure time longer than 1/4s, even to 1-2/s, stuck pixel, i.e. noise, will appear in the image.
Solution: Take a second frame known as "dark frame" with the lens covered and the shutter closed for the same amount of time as the main image. This dark frame will be used to identify and subtract "stuck pixels". Edit the images in Photoshop or other software packages to get a cleaner one. http://www.dpreview.com/learn/key=noise+reduction has the detail.

Depth of Field

Depth of Field: Depth of field is the range of distance (measured along the lens axis) for which the subject is rendered acceptably sharp in the photographic image. The following chart gives the relationship between DOV and its determining factors.

Depth of Field Remark
F value: larger Aperture: smaller deeper Decrease the aperture, i.e. increase the F value to get a deeper DOV when shooting panorama.
Focal length: greater shallower Wide-angle lens has deeper DOV while telephoto lens has shallower DOV.
Distance from the lens to the subject: farther deeper The closer you are to the subject the shallower the depth of field, the farther from the subject, the greater the depth of field.

Shutter speed

Shutter speed type Required setting or equipment Applied occasion
Bulb,1s,1/2s Cameral stableness specially needed, using tripod For dark scene
1/4,1/8 Tripod needed
1/15,1/30,1/60,1/125, 1/250,1/500 For common shooting
1/1000 Set larger aperture size, shallower DOV and accurate focus Used for sports photography as skiing, basketball.
1/2000-1/8000 Telephoto lens equipped Ultra high speed shooting, such as sport shooting.

The quality of stitched panorama greatly relies on the photography, for instance the lighting, contrast, brightness, noise etc. So more knowledge about photography is of great help.

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