Your question asks for everything and then you finish with best price!
No matter how you look at it you are going to need a top end DSLR camera to meet your requirements. Your starting point will be a Nikon D7000 or Canon 550D. With a Nikon D700, Canon 5DMKII a step up to full frame. In between you have the Nikon D300s and the Canon 7D.
First you need to make up your mind Nikon or Canon. Second APS-C/DX sensor or Fullframe/FX sensor.
Once you have a camera you need to choose a lens. You start with how many shots you want vs the resolution required. This can be a fisheye lens from 4.5mm to 16mm. That requires as little as 2 shots to 17 shots to cover the sphere.
Or you can use a rectilinear lens requiring many more shots.
What's your preference?
P.S: Even once you own the best equipment for the job you still have to learn how to get the most from it.